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BioStar Scientific Studies and References


BioStar believes in the science of nature. Every formula BioStar creates is backed by research. Each ingredient is carefully considered and studied before we will consider including it in our mission for authentic nutrition.  Here you will find our sources of information for our blog, our product research, and more.


BioStar Ingredients


Almonds

  • Chen, Oliver & Milbury, Paul & Lapsley, Karen & Blumberg, Jeffrey. (2005). Flavonoids from almond skins are bioavailable and act synergistically with vitamins C and E to enhance hamster and human LDL resistance to oxidation. The Journal of Nutrition, 135(6), 1366-73.
  • Jenkins, David J.A. & Kendall, Cyril W.C. & Josse, Andrea R. & Salvatore, Sara & Brighenti, Furio & Augustin, Livia & Ellis, Peter & Vidgen, Ed & Rao, Venket. (2006). Almonds decrease postprandial glycemia, insulinemia, and oxidative damage in healthy individuals. The Journal of Nutrition, 136(12), 2987-92.

Aloe Vera

  • Darabighane, Babak & Zarei, Abolfazl & Zare Shahneh, Ahmad. (2012). The effects of different levels of Aloe vera gel on ileum microflora population and immune response in broilers: A comparison to antibiotic effects. Journal of Applied Animal Research, 40(1), 31-6.

Amalaki (Indian Gooseberry)

  • Biswas, Tuhin & Chakrabarti, Shrabana & Pandit, Srikanta & Jana, Utpalendu & Dey, Subrata. (2014). Pilot study evaluating the use of Emblica officinalis standardized fruit extract in cardio-respiratory improvement and antioxidant status of volunteers with smoking history. Journal of Herbal Medicine, 4(4), 188-94.
  • Fatima, Nishat & Pingali, Usharani & Muralidhar, N. (2013). Study of pharmacodynamic interaction of Phyllanthus emblica extract with clopidogrel and ecosprin in patients with type II diabetes mellitus. Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology, 21(5), 579-85.
  • Fatima, Nishat & Pingali, Usharani & Pilli, Raveendranadh. (2014). Evaluation of Phyllanthus emblica extract on cold pressor induced cardiovascular changes in healthy human subjects. Pharmacognosy Research, 6(1), 29-35.
  • Khanna, Savita & Das, Amitava & Spieldenner, James & Rink, Cameron & Roy, Sashwati. (2015). Supplementation of a standardized extract from Phyllanthus emblica improves cardiovascular risk factors and platelet aggregation in overweight/class-1 obese adults. Journal of Medicinal Food, 18(4), 415-20.
  • Pingali, Usharani & Fatima, Nishat & Muralidhar, Nizampatnam. (2013). Effects of Phyllanthus emblica extract on endothelial dysfunction and biomarkers of oxidative stress in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: A randomized, double-blind, controlled study. Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity: Targets and Therapy, 6, 275-84.
  • Usharani, P. & Kishan, P.V. & Fatima, Nishat & Uday, Kumar C. (2014). A comparative study to evaluate the effect of highly standardised aqueous extracts of Phyllanthus emblica… on endothelial dysfunction… . International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research, 5(7), 2687-97.

Astaxanthin

  • Baskin, Carole & Hinchcliff, Kenneth & Disilvestro, Robert & A. Reinhart, Gregg & Hayek, Michael & Chew, Boon & R. Burr, John & A. Swenson, Richard. (2000). Effects of dietary antioxidant supplementation on oxidative damage during prolonged exercise in sled dogs. American Journal of Veterinary Research, 61(8), 886-91.
  • Capelli, B. & Cysweski, G.R. (2006) Astaxanthin: King of the Carotenoids. Kailua-Kona, HI: Cyanotech.
  • Lee, Seon-Jin & Bai, Se-Kyung & Lee, Kwang-Soon & Namkoong, Seung & Na, Hee-Jun & Ha, Kwon-Soo & Han, Jeong-A & … Misun, Kim. (2003). Astaxanthin inhibits nitric oxide production and inflammatory gene expression by suppressing IκB kinase-dependent NF-κB activation. Molecules and Cells, 16(1), 97-105.
  • Park, Jean Soon & Chyun, Jong Hee & Kim, Yoo Kyung & Line, Larry L. & Chew, Boon. (2010). Astaxanthin decreased oxidative stress and inflammation and enhanced immune response in humans. Nutrition & Metabolism, 7(1), 18.
  • Park, J.S. & Mathison, Bridget & Hayek, Michael & Zhang, Jin & Reinhart, G.A. & Chew, Boon. (2012). Astaxanthin modulates age-associated mitochondrial dysfunction in healthy dogs. Journal of Animal Science, 91(1), 268-75.

Beta-Glucan (See also Oat Bran and Medicinal Mushrooms)

  • Berglin, S. (2017) Beta-glucans: The medicinal actives of mushrooms. Retrieved from https://www.fxmedicine.com.au/blog-post/beta-glucans-medicinal-actives-mushrooms
  • Raa, Jan. (2015). Immune modulation by non-digestible and non-absorbable beta-1,3/1,6-glucan. Microbial Ecology in Health and Disease, 26.
  • Tsikitis, Vassiliki & Albina, Jorge E. & Reichner, Jonathan S. (2004). β-glucan affects leukocyte navigation in a complex chemotactic gradient. Surgery, 136(2), 384-9.

Biotin

  • EFSA Panel on Additives and Products or Substances used in Animal Feed. (2012). Scientific opinion on the safety and efficacy of biotin as a feed additive for all animal species based on a dossier submitted by VITAC EEIG. European Food Safety Authority Journal, 10(11).
  • Lindner, Arno & Vonwittke, P. & Frigg, M. (1992). Effect of biotin supplementation on the VLa4 of thoroughbred horses. Journal of Equine Veterinary Science, 12(3), 149-152.
  • Reilly, J.D. & Cottrell, D.F. & Martin, Richard & Cuddeford, Derek. (1998). Effect of supplementary dietary biotin on hoof growth and hoof growth rate in ponies: A controlled trial. Equine Veterinary Journal, 30(suppl.), 51-7.
  • Zenker, W. & Josseck, H. & Geyer, Hans. (1995). Histological and physical assessment of poor hoof horn quality in Lipizzaner horses and a therapeutic trial with biotin and a placebo. Equine Veterinary Journal, 27(3), 183-91.

Blueberry

  • Dunlap, Kriya & Reynolds, Arleigh & Duffy, Lawrence. (2006). Total antioxidant power in sled dogs supplemented with blueberries and the comparison of blood parameters associated with exercise. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology: Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology, 143(4), 429-34.
  • Minich, Deanna & Lerman, Robert & Darland, Gary & Babish, John & Pacioretty, Linda & Bland, Jeffrey & Tripp, Matthew. (2010). Hop and acacia phytochemicals decreased lipotoxicity in 3T3-L1 adipocytes, db/db mice, and individuals with metabolic syndrome. Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism, 4(2010).

Boswellia

  • Siddiqui, Mahtab. (2011). Boswellia serrata, a potential anti-inflammatory agent: An overview. Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 73(3), 255-61.

Broccoli

  • Clarke, John & Riedl, Kenneth & Bella, Deborah & Schwartz, Steven & Stevens, Jan F. & Ho, Emily. (2011). Comparison of isothiocyanate metabolite levels and histone deacetylase activity in human subjects consuming broccoli sprouts or broccoli supplement. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 59(20). 10955-63.

Bromelain

  • Brien, S., Lewith, G., Walker, A., Hicks, S. M., & Middleton, D. (2004). Bromelain as a treatment for osteoarthritis: A review of clinical studies. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 1(3), 251–257.

Cabbage

  • Rao, R. & Samak, G. (2011). Role of glutamine in protection of intestinal epithelial tight junctions. Journal of Epithelial Biology & Pharmacology, 5(S1-M7), 47–54.

Camelina Oil

  • Chen, Hongjiang & Li, Dayuan & Saldeen, Tom & Romeo, Francesco & Mehta, Jawahar. (2002). Mixed tocopherol preparation Is superior to α-tocopherol alone against hypoxia–reoxygenation injury. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, 291(2), 349-53.
  • Jiang, Qing & Elson-Schwab, Ilan & Courtemanche, Chantal & Ames, Bruce N. (2000). γ-Tocopherol and its major metabolite, in contrast to α-tocopherol, inhibit cyclooxygenase activity in macrophages and epithelial cells. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 97(21). 11494-9.
  • Jiang, Qing & Ames, Bruce. (2003). γ-Tocopherol, but not α-tocopherol, decreases proinflammatory eicosanoids and inflammation damage in rats. FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology, 17(8). 816-22.

Carpros

  • May, K. & Gupta, R.C. & Miller, J. & Goad, J.T. & Lasher, M.A. & Conway, R. & Canerdy, T.D. (2015). Therapeutic efficacy and safety evaluation of a novel chromium supplement (Crominex®3+) in moderately arthritic horses. Jacobs Journal of Veterinary Science Research, 1(3).

Casein

  • Choi, SuJean & DiSilvio, Briana & H Fernstrom, Madelyn & Fernstrom, John. (2011). Effect of chronic protein ingestion on tyrosine and tryptophan levels and catecholamine and serotonin synthesis in rat brain. Nutritional Neuroscience, 14(6), 260-7.

CBD Oil

  • Barrie, N. & Manolios, N. (2017). The endocannabinoid system in pain and inflammation: Its relevance to rheumatic disease. European Journal of Rheumatology, 4(3), 210-8.
  • Booz, G. W. (2011). Cannabidiol as an emergent therapeutic strategy for lessening the impact of inflammation on oxidative stress. Free Radical Biology & Medicine, 51(5), 1054–61.
  • Di Marzo, Vincenzo & Piscitelli, Fabiana. (2011). Gut feelings about the endocannabinoid system. Neurogastroenterology and Motility, 23(5), 391-8.
  • Gyires, K., & Zádori, Z. S. (2016). Role of cannabinoids in gastrointestinal mucosal defense and Inflammation. Current Neuropharmacology, 14(8), 935–51.
  • Kaplan, B. L. & Springs, A. E. & Kaminski, N. E. (2008). The profile of immune modulation by cannabidiol (CBD) involves deregulation of nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT). Biochemical Pharmacology, 76(6), 726–37.
  • Klauke, A.L., et al. (2013). The cannabinoid CB₂ receptor-selective phytocannabinoid beta-caryophyllene exerts analgesic effects in mouse models of inflammatory and neuropathic pain. European Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology, 24(4), 608-20.
  • Kumar, Amit & Premoli, Marika & Aria, Francesca & Bonini, Sara & Maccarinelli, Giuseppina & Gianoncelli, Alessandra & Memo, Maurizio & Mastinu, Andrea. (2019). Cannabimimetic plants: are they new cannabinoidergic modulators? Planta, 249(6), 1681-94.
  • Manzanares, J. & Julian, M. & Carrascosa, A. (2006). Role of the cannabinoid system in pain control and therapeutic implications for the management of acute and chronic pain episodes. Current Neuropharmacology, 4(3), 239–57.
  • McDougle, Daniel & Watson, Josephine & Abdeen, Amr & Reheman, Adili & Caputo, Megan & Krapf, John & W. Johnson, Rodney & Kilian, Kristopher & Holinstat, Michael & Das, Aditi. (2017). Anti-inflammatory ω-3 endocannabinoid epoxides. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 114(10).
  • Starowicz, Katarzyna & Małek, Natalia & Przewlocka, Barbara. (2013). Cannabinoid receptors and pain. Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Membrane Transport and Signaling, 2.
  • Styrczewska, Monika & Kulma, Anna & Ratajczak, Katarzyna & Amarowicz, Ryszard & Szopa, Jan. (2012). Cannabinoid-like anti-inflammatory compounds from flax fiber. Cellular & Molecular Biology Letters, 17(3), 479-99.
  • Turcotte, C., Blanchet, M. R., Laviolette, M., & Flamand, N. (2016). The CB2 receptor and its role as a regulator of inflammation. Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences, 73(23), 4449–70.

Chasteberry

  • Bradaric, Zrinjka & May, Anna & Gehlen, Heidrun. (2013). Use of the chasteberry preparation Corticosal® for the treatment of pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction in horses. Pferdeheilkunde, 29(6), 721-8.

Chia Seeds

  • Ayerza, Ricardo & Coates, Wayne. (2005). Chia: Rediscovering a Forgotten Crop of the Aztecs. Tucson, AZ: University of Arizona Press.
  • Castro-Martinez, R. & Pratt D.E. & Miller, E. E. (1986). Natural antioxidants of chia seeds. Presented at World Conference on Emerging Technologies in the Fats and Oils Industry, 1986, Champaign, IL: American Oil Chemists’ Society Press.
  • Eaton, Stanley & Konner, Melvin & Shostak, Marjorie. (1996). An evolutionary perspective enhances understanding of human nutritional requirements. The Journal of Nutrition, 126. 1732-40.
  • Scheer, James. (2001). The Magic of Chia: Revival of an Ancient Wonder Food. Berkley, CA: North Atlantic Books.
  • Weber, C.W. & Gentry, H.S. & Kohlhepp, E.A. & McCrohan, P.R. (1991). The nutritional and chemical evaluation of chia seeds. Ecology of Food and Nutrition, 26(2), 119-25.

Colostrum

  • Bhora, F.Y. & Dunkin B.J. & Batzri, S. & Aly, H.M. & Bass, B.L. & Sidawy, A.N. & Harmon, J.W. (1995). Effect of growth factors on cell proliferation and epithelialization in human skin. Journal of Surgical Research, 59(2), 236-44.
  • Blake, Stephen. (1999). Bovine colostrum: The forgotten miracle. Journal of the American Holistic Veterinary Medical Association, 18(2), 39-40.
  • Britigan, Bradley E. & Serody, Jonathan & Cohen, Myron. (1994). The role of lactoferrin as an anti-inflammatory molecule. Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology, 357, 143-56.
  • Buckley, Jonathan & Abbott, M.J. & Brinkworth, Grant & Whyte, P.B.D. (2002). Bovine colostrum supplementation during endurance running training improves recovery, but not performance. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, 5(2), 65-79.
  • Coombes, Jeff S. & Conacher, Michael & Austen, Simon K. & Marshall, Philip A. (2002). Dose effects of oral bovine colostrum on physical work capacity in cyclists. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 34(7), 1184-8.
  • Du, Ming & Wang, Kejian & Wu, Chengtie & Zhang, Lanwei. (2009). Effects of bovine colostrum acid protein on bone loss and hemobiochemistry indexes in rats. Dairy and Science Technology, 89(5).
  • Griffin, F. & Hopkins, W. & Rehrer, N. & Thomson, C. & Walmsley, A. (2001). The effects of dietary supplementation with bovine colostrum on the training, immunologic status, and performance of competitive distance runners. Annual Sport Science New Zealand Conference, September 2-30, Wellington, New Zealand.
  • Gutterage, J. & Paterson, S. & Segal, A. & Halliwell, B. (1981). Inhibition of lipid peroxidation by the iron-binding protein lactoferrin. Biochemistry Journal, 199: 259-261.
  • Hofman, Zandrie & Smeets, Rolf & Verlaan, George & Lugt, Richard V.D. & Verstappen, Peter A. (2003). The effect of bovine colostrum supplementation on exercise performance in elite field hockey players. International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism, 12(4). 461-9.
  • Keech A. (2008). Peptide immunotherapy: The use of bovine colostrum proline-rich polypeptides in cytokine modulation for the alternative relief of allergic symptoms, Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, 119(1), S260.
  • Kuipers, Harm & Breda, Eric & Verlaan, G. & Smeets, Rolf. (2002). Effects of oral bovine colostrum supplementation on serum insulin-like growth factor-I levels. Nutrition, 18(7-8), 566-7.
  • Leppäluoto, J. & Rasi, S. & Martikkala, V. & Puukka, M. (2000). Bovine colostrum supplementation enhances physical performance on maximal exercise tests. 2000 Pre-Olympic Congress: International Congress on Sport Science, Sports Medicine and Physical Education, 7-13 September, Brisbane, Australia.
  • Moldoveanu, Zina & Tenovuo, Jorma & Pruitt, Kenneth M. & Mansson‐Rahemtulla, Britta & Mestecky, Jiri. (2006). Antibacterial properties of milk: IgA-peroxidase-lactoferrin interactions. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 409(1), 848-50.
  • Molloy, Timothy & Wang, Yao & Murrell, George. (2003). The roles of growth factors in tendon and ligament healing. Sports Medicine, 33(5), 381-94.
  • Nitsch, Alejandro & P. Nitsch, Fabiola. (1998). The Clinical Use of Bovine Colostrum. Journal of Orthomolecular Medicine, 13(2), 110-118.
  • Perryman, Lance & McGuire, T.C. (1980). Evaluation of immune system failure in horses and ponies. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, 176(12), 1374-7.
  • Playford, R.J. & Floyd, D.N. & MacDonald, C.E. & Calnan, D.P. & Adenekan, R.O. & Johnson, W. & Goodlad, Robert & Marchbank, Tania. (1999). Bovine colostrum is health supplement which prevents NSAID induced gut damage. Gut, 44(5), 653-8.
  • Playford, Raymond J. & MacDonald, Christopher & Calnan, Denis P. & Floyd, David N. & Podas, Thrasyvoulos & Johnson, Wendy & Wicks, Anthony C. & Bashir, O. & Marchbank, Tania. (2001). Co-administration of the health food supplement, bovine colostrum, reduces the acute non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug-induced increase in intestinal permeability. Clinical Science, 100(6), 627-33.
  • Sato, Kenji & Li, Yong & Foster, William & Fukushima, Kazumasa & Badlani, Neil & Adachi, Nobuo & Usas, Arvydas & Fu, Freddie H. & Huard, Johnny. (2003). Improvement of muscle healing through enhancement of muscle regeneration and prevention of fibrosis. Muscle & Nerve, 28(3). 365-72.
  • Stephan, W. & Dichtelmüller, H. (1990). Antibodies from colostrum in oral immunotherapy. Journal of Clinical Chemistry and Clinical Biochemistry, 28(1), 19-23.
  • Wadey, Alison L. & Muyderman, Hakan & Kwek, Perrin T. & Sims, Neil. (2009). Mitochondrial glutathione uptake: Characterization in isolated brain mitochondria and astrocytes in culture. Journal of Neurochemistry, 109(S1), 101-8.
  • Ward, Pauline P. & Uribe Luna, Sonia & Conneely, Orla M. (2002). Lactoferrin and host defense. Biochemistry and Cell Biology, 80(1), 95-102.

Electrolytes

  • Waller, Amanda & Heigenhauser, George & Lindinger, Michael. (2007). Electrolyte supplementation after moderate intensity exercise results in decreased plasma [TCO2] in Standardbreds. Equine and Comparative Exercise Physiology, 4(3-4), 149-58.

Figs

Flavonoid Antioxidants

  • Chen, Oliver & Milbury, Paul & Lapsley, Karen & Blumberg, Jeffrey. (2005). Flavonoids from almond skins are bioavailable and act synergistically with vitamins C and E to enhance hamster and human LDL resistance to oxidation. The Journal of Nutrition, 135(6), 1366-73.
  • Seeram, Navindra & Aviram, Michael & Zhang, Yanjun & Henning, Susanne & Feng, Lydia & Dreher, Mark & Heber, David. (2008). Comparison of antioxidant potency of commonly consumed polyphenol-rich beverages in the United States. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 56(4), 1415-22.

Gree-Lipped Mussel

  • Bierer, T.L. & Bui, L.M. (2002). Improvement of arthritic signs in dogs fed green-lipped mussel (Perna canaliculus). Journal of Nutrition, 132(6), 1634S-36S.
  • Rainsford, Kim & W. Whitehouse, M. (1980). Gastroprotective and anti-inflammatory properties of green-lipped mussel (Perna canaliculus) preparation. Arzneimittel-Forschung, 30(12), 2128-32.
  • Wakimoto, Toshiyuki & Kondo, Hikaru & Nii, Hirohiko & Kimura, Kaori & Egami, Yoko & Oka, Yusuke & Yoshida, Masae & … Abe, Ikuro. (2011). Furan fatty acid as an anti-inflammatory component from the green-lipped mussel Perna canaliculus. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 108(42), 17533-7.

Haritaki

  • Suk, Tum & Koo, Yun-Chang & Suh, Hyung Joo & Kim, Kyung-Yong & Lee, Kwangwon. (2010). Preventive effects of chebulic acid isolated from Terminalia chebula on advanced glycation endproduct-induced endothelial cell dysfunction. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 131(3), 567-74.

Hemp Oil

  • Pellegrini, Franklin. (2005). Results of a large-scale necroscopic study of equine colon ulcers. Journal of Equine Veterinary Science, 25(3), 113-117.

HSCAS/Smectite Healing Clay

  • Shebl, M. A. & Hafiz, Naglaa A. (2010). Genotoxic studies of yeast cell wall (YCW) and hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate (HSCAS) on the DNA damage and chromosomal aberrations induced by aflatoxin in broiler. Journal of American Science, 6(10), 961-7.

Medicinal Mushrooms

  • Berglin, S. (2017) Beta-glucans: The medicinal actives of mushrooms. Retrieved from https://www.fxmedicine.com.au/blog-post/beta-glucans-medicinal-actives-mushrooms
  • El Khoury, Dalia & Cuda, C. & Luhovyy, B.L. & Anderson, Gerald. (2012). Beta-glucan: Health benefits in obesity and metabolic syndrome. Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism, vol. 2012.
  • Guggenheim, A. G. & Wright, K. M., & Zwickey, H. L. (2014). Immune Modulation From Five Major Mushrooms: Application to Integrative Oncology. Integrative Medicine. 13(1), 32–44.
  • Hetland, Geir & Ohno, Naohito & Aaberge, Ingeborg & Løvik, Martinus. (2000). Protective effect of β-glucan against systemic Streptococcus pneumoniae infection in mice. FEMS Immunology and Medical Microbiology, 27(2), 111-6.
  • Vetvicka, Vaclav & Vetvickova, Jana. (2009). Effects of yeast-derived β-glucans on blood cholesterol and macrophage functionality. Journal of Immunotoxicology, 6(1), 30-5.
  • Wasser, S. (2014). Medicinal mushroom science: Current perspectives, advances, evidences, and challenges. Biomedical Journal, 37(6): 345-56.
  • Wong J. et al. (2013). Gastroprotective Effects of Lion’s Mane Mushroom Hericium erinaceus (Bull.:Fr.) Pers. (Aphyllophoromycetideae) Extract against Ethanol-Induced Ulcer in Rats. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, Oct. 2013.

Oat Bran (See also Beta-Glucan)

  • Tsikitis, Vassiliki & E. Albina, Jorge & S. Reichner, Jonathan. (2004). β-glucan affects leukocyte navigation in a complex chemotactic gradient. Surgery, 136(2), 384-9.

Oragnic Apple Powder

  • Chen, Oliver & Milbury, Paul & Lapsley, Karen & Blumberg, Jeffrey. (2005). Flavonoids from almond skins are bioavailable and act synergistically with vitamins C and E to enhance hamster and human LDL resistance to oxidation. The Journal of Nutrition, 135(6), 1366-73.
  • Seeram, Navindra & Aviram, Michael & Zhang, Yanjun & Henning, Susanne & Feng, Lydia & Dreher PhD, Mark & Heber, David. (2008). Comparison of antioxidant potency of commonly consumed polyphenol-rich beverages in the United States. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 56(4), 1415-22.

Oragnic Barley Grass

  • Hammel-Dupont, C.L. & Bessman, S.P. (1970). The stimulation of hemoglobin synthesis by porphyrins. Biochemical Medicine, 4(1), 55-60.

Oragnic Freeze-Dried Beet Root Juice

  • Bailey, S. & Fulford, J. & Vanhatalo, A., et al. (2010). Dietary nitrate supplementation enhances muscle contractile efficiency during knee-extensor exercise in humans. Journal of Applied Physiology, 109(1), 135-48.
  • Vanhatalo, A. & Bailey, S. & Blackwell, J., et al. (2010). Acute and chronic effects of dietary nitrate supplementation on blood pressure and the physiological responses to moderate-intensity and incremental exercise. American Journal of Physiology, 299(4), R1121-31.

Organic Free-Dried orange powder

  • Galati, E.M. & Trovato, A. & Kirjavainen, S. & Forestieri, A.M. & Trovato, A. & Tripodo, Maria. (1996). Biological effects of hesperidin, a citrus bioflavonoid (Note-I): Anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity. Il Farmaco, 51(3), 219-21.

Polyphenol Antioxidants

  • Bryant, Rebecca J. & Ryder, Jeff & Martino, Paul & Kim, Junghoun & Craig, Bruce. (2003). Effects of vitamin E and C supplementation either alone or in combination on exercise-induced lipid peroxidation in trained cyclists. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 17(4), 792-800.

Poultice Ingredients

  • Child, Lydia. (1837). The family nurse. London, UK: Richard Bentley.

Prebiotics / Probiotics

  • Abrams, Steven & Griffin, Ian & Hawthorne, Keli & Liang, Lily & K Gunn, Sheila & Darlington, Gretchen & J. Ellis, Kenneth. (2005). A combination of prebiotic short- and long-chain inulin-type fructans enhance calcium absorption and bone mineralization in young adolescents. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 82(2), 471-6.
  • Ahrné, Siv & Nobaek, S. & Jeppsson, B. & Adlerberth, Ingegerd & Wold, Agnes & Molin, Goran. (1998). The normal Lactobacillus flora of healthy rectal and oral mucosa. Journal of Applied Microbiology, 85(1), 88-94.
  • Benno, Yoshimi & Nakao, Hiroyuki & Uchida, Kiyohisa & Mitsuoka, Tomotari. (1992). Impact of the advances in age on the gastrointestinal microflora of beagle dogs. Journal of Veterinary Medical Science / Japanese Society of Veterinary Science, 54(4), 703-6.
  • Bloksma, Nanne & De Heer, Emile & van Dijk, H. & Willers, J.M. (1979). Adjuvanticity of lactobacilli. I. Differential effects of viable and killed bacteria. Clinical and Experimental Immunology, 37(2), 367-75.
  • Chung, W. & Meijerink, M. & Zeuner, B. & Holck, J. & Louis, P. & Meyer, A. & Wells, J. & Flint, H. & Duncan, S. (2017). Prebiotic potential of pectin and pectic oligosaccharides to promote anti-inflammatory commensal bacteria in the human colon, FEMS Microbiology Ecology, 93 (11).
  • Davis, C.P. & Cleven, D. & Balish, E. & Yale, C.E. (1977). Bacterial association in the gastrointestinal tract of beagle dogs. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 34(2). 194-206.
  • Dinan, Timothy G. & Cryan, John. (2012). Regulation of the stress response by the gut microbiota: Implications for psychoneuroendocrinology. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 37(9), 1369-78.Effect of live yeast in equine diets. (2013, June 19). Retrieved from Kentucky Equine Research website: https://ker.com/equinews/effect-live-yeast-equine-diets/
  • El Khoury, Dalia & Cuda, C. & Luhovyy, B.L. & Anderson, Gerald. (2012). Beta glucan: Health benefits in obesity and metabolic syndrome. Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism, vol. 2012.
  • Expertanswer (Expertsvar in Swedish). (2010, November 4). Lactobacillus reuteri good for health, Swedish study finds. ScienceDaily. Retrieved May 21, 2019 from www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2010/11/101102131302.htm
  • Gibson, G.R. & Saavedra, J.M. & MacFarlane, S. & MacFarlane, G.T. (1997). Gastrointestinal microbial disease and probiotics. In R. Fuller (Ed.), Probiotics: Therapeutic and Other Beneficial Effects (pp. 10-39). London, UK: Chapman Hall.
  • He, Fang & Ouwehand, Arthur & Isolauri, Erika & Hosoda, Masataka & Benno, Yoshimi & Salminen, Seppo. (2001). Differences in composition and mucosal adhesion of bifidobacteria isolated from healthy adults and healthy seniors. Current Microbiology, 43(5), 351-4.
  • Hetland, Geir & Ohno, Naohito & Aaberge, Ingeborg & Løvik, Martinus. (2000). Protective effect of β-glucan against systemic Streptococcus pneumonia infection in mice. FEMS Immunology and Medical Microbiology, 27(2), 111-6.
  • Hooda, Seema & Minamoto, Yasushi & Suchodolski, Jan & Swanson, Kelly. (2012). Current state of knowledge: The canine gastrointestinal microbiome. Animal Health Research Reviews, 13(1), 78-88.
  • Isolauri, E. (1995). Intestinal Integrity and IBD. In G. Kluwer & J. Bartelsman & S. van Deventer (Eds.), Inflammatory Bowel Diseases (pp. 553-5). Lancaster, UK: Kluwer Academic Publishers.
  • Kil, D.Y. & Swanson, Kelly. (2010). Companion animals symposium: Role of microbes in canine and feline health. Journal of Animal Science, 89(5), 1498-505.
  • Maukonen, Johanna & Mättö, Jaana & Suihko, Maija-Liisa & Saarela, Maria. (2009). Intra-individual diversity and similarity of salivary and faecal microbiota. Journal of Medical Microbiology, 57(12), 1560-8.
  • Nishida, S. & Ishikawa, Y. & Lino, H. (2008). Effect of Bifidobacterium lactis DN-173 010 on the intestinal transit time, the condition of defecation and intestinal microflora: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over study among healthy Japanese women. Pharmacometrics, 74(5/6), 99-106.
  • Palframan, R. J. & Gibson, G.R. & Rastall, R.A. (2003). Development of a quantitative tool for the comparison of the prebiotic effect of dietary oligosaccharides. Letters in Applied Microbiology, 37(4). 281-4.
  • Perdigon, G. & Alvarez, Susana & Medina, M. & Vintiñi, E. & Roux, E. (1999). Influence of oral administration of lactic acid bacteria on IgA producing cells associated to bronchus. International Journal of Immunotherapy and Pharmacology, 12(2), 97-102.
  • Perdigon, G. & Fuller, R. & Raya, R. (2001). Lactic acid bacteria and their effect on the immune system. Current Issues in Intestinal Microbiology, 2(1), 27-42.
  • Reichstein, Markus, et al. (2013). Climate extremes and the carbon cycle. Nature, 500(7462), 287-95.
  • Saminen, E., et al. (1988). Preservation of intestinal integrity during radiotherapy using live lactobacillus cultures. Clinical Radiology, 39(4), 435-7.
  • Simark-Mattsson, Charlotte & Emilson, Claes-Göran & Håkansson, Eva & Jacobsson, Catharina & Roos, Kristian & Holm, Stig. (2007). Lactobacillus-mediated interference of mutans streptococci in caries-free vs. caries-active subjects. European Journal of Oral Sciences, 115(4). 308-14.
  • Simpson, J.M. & Martineau, B. & Jones, W.E. & Ballam, Joan & Mackie, Roderick. (2002). Characterization of fecal bacterial populations in canines: Effects of age, breed and dietary fiber. Microbial Ecology, 44(2), 186-97.
  • Suchodolski, Jan. (2011). Intestinal microbiota of dogs and cats: A bigger world than we thought. The Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice, 41(2), 261-72.
  • Thomas, François & Hehemann, Jan-Hendrik & Rebuffet, Etienne & Czjzek, Mirjam & Michel, Gurvan. (2011). Environmental and gut Bacteroidetes: The food connection. Frontiers in Microbiology, 2(93), 93.
  • Vetvicka, Vaclav & Vetvickova, Jana. (2009). Effects of yeast-derived β-glucans on blood cholesterol and macrophage functionality. Journal of Immunotoxicology, 6(1), 30-5.
  • Yamazaki, Shoji & Kamimura, Hiroshi & Momose, Hiroshi & Kawashima, Takuji & Ueda, Katsumoto. (1982). Protective effect of bifidobacterium monoassociation against lethal activity of Escherichia coli. Bifidobacteria Microflora, 1(1), 55-9.

Shilajit

  • Gildea, John & Roberts, David & Bush, Zachary. (2017). Protective effects of lignite extract supplement on intestinal barrier function in glyphosate-mediated tight junction injury. Journal of Clinical Nutrition & Dietetics, 3(1), 1.
  • Kotb-El-Sayed, Mohamed & Amin, Hatem & Al-kaf, Ali. (2012). Anti-microbial, anti-oxidant and anti-ulcerogenic effects of shilajit on gastric ulcer in rats. American Journal of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, 8(1), 26-39.
  • Trivedi, N.A. & B. Mazumdar & Bhatt, Jagatkumar & Hemavathi, K.G. (2004). Effect of shilajit on blood glucose and lipid profile in alloxaninduced diabetic rats. Indian Journal of Pharmacology, 36(6).

Spirulina

  • Anitha, L. & Chandralekha K. (2010) Effect of supplementation of spirulina on blood glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin and lipid profile of male non-insulin-dependent diabetics. Asian Journal of Experimental Biological Sciences, 1(1), 36-46.
  • Bhowmik, D. & Dubey, J. & Mehra, S. (2009). Probiotic efficiency of Spirulina platensis – stimulating growth of lactic acid bacteria. World Journal of Dairy and Food Sciences, 4(2), 160-163.
  • Kalafati, Maria & Jamurtas, Thanasis & Nikolaidis, Michalis & Paschalis, Vassilis & Theodorou, Anastasios & Sakellariou, Giorgos & Koutedakis, Yiannis & Kouretas, Dimitris. (2010). Ergogenic and antioxidant effects of spirulina supplementation in humans. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 42(1), 142-51.

Turmeric (Curcumin)

  • Anand P. & Kunnumakkara, A.B. & Newman, Robert A. & Aggarwal, Bharat B. (2007). Bioavailability of curcumin: Problems and promises. Molecular Pharmaceutics, 4(6), 807-818.
  • Higdon, Jane & Drake, Victoria J. & Delage, Barbara. (2009). Curcumin. Retrieved from https://lpi.oregonstate.edu/mic/dietary-factors/phytochemicals/curcumin
  • Srimal, R.C. & Dhawan, B.N. (1973). Pharmacology of diferuloyl methane (curcumin), a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent. Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, 25(6), 447-52.

Undenatured Whey Protein

  • Rob Markus, C. & Olivier, B. & Em Panhuysen, Geert & Van Der Gugten, Jan & S. Alles, Martine & Tuiten, Adriaan & G.M. Westenberg, Herman & Fekkes, Durk & Koppeschaar, Hans & de Haan, Edward. (2000). The bovine protein alpha-lactalbumin increases the plasma ratio of tryptophan to the other large neutral amino acids, and in vulnerable subjects raises brain serotonin activity, reduces cortisol concentration, and improves mood under stress. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 71(6), 1536-44.

Yeast-Bound Copper

  • Vinson, Joe & Tompkins, Thomas & Agbor, Gabriel. (2007). Comparative Bioavailability of Mineral-enriched Gluconates and Yeast in Rat Liver After Depletion–Repletion Feeding. Biological Trace Element Research, 118(2). 104-10.

Yeast-Bound Zinc

  • Vinson, Joe & Tompkins, Thomas & Agbor, Gabriel. (2007). Comparative Bioavailability of Mineral-enriched Gluconates and Yeast in Rat Liver After Depletion–Repletion Feeding. Biological Trace Element Research, 118(2). 104-10.


Other Topics Related to BioStar Whole-Food Mission


Food and Water Quality

Food-state nutrients vs. synthetic nutrients & nutrient isolates

  • Burton-Freeman, Britt M. & Sesso, Howard D. (2014). Whole food versus supplement: Comparing the clinical evidence of tomato intake and lycopene supplementation on cardiovascular risk factors. Advances in Nutrition, 5(5), 457-85.
  • Carr, Anitra & Vissers, Margreet. (2013). Synthetic or food-derived vitamin C—are they equally bioavailable?. Nutrients, 5, 4284-304.
  • Clarke, John & Riedl, Kenneth & Bella, Deborah & Schwartz, Steven & Stevens, Jan F. & Ho, Emily. (2011). Comparison of isothiocyanate metabolite levels and histone deacetylase activity in human subjects consuming broccoli sprouts or broccoli supplement. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 59(20), 10955-63.
  • Heinonen, O.P. & Albanes, D. (1994). The effect of vitamin E and beta carotene on the incidence of lung cancer and other cancers in male smokers. New England Journal of Medicine, 330(15), 1029-35.
  • Klein, Eric A. & Thompson, Ian M. & Tangen, Catherine & Crowley, John J. & Lucia, Marshall & Goodman, Phyllis J. & Minasian, Lori M. & … Baker, Laurence. (2011). Vitamin E and the risk of prostate cancer: The selenium and vitamin E cancer prevention trial. The Journal of the American Medical Association, 306(14), 1549-56.
  • Miller, Edgar R. & Pastor-Barriuso, Roberto & Dalal, Darshan & Riemersma, Rudolph A. & Appel, Lawrence J. & Guallar, Eliseo. (2005). Meta-analysis: High-dosage vitamin E supplementation may increase all-cause mortality. Annals of Internal Medicine, 142(1), 37-46.
  • Parker-Pope, Tara. (2007, November 5). The case for real food. The New York Times. Retrieved from https://well.blogs.nytimes.com/2007/11/05/the-case-for-real-food/

Calcium-rich foods vs. supplemental calcium

  • Anderson, John & Kruszka, Bridget & Delaney, Joseph & He, Ka & Burke, Gregory & Alonso, Alvaro & Bild, Diane & Budoff, Matthew & Michos, Erin. (2016). Calcium intake from diet and supplements and the risk of coronary artery calcification and its progression among older adults: 10‐year follow‐up of the Multi‐Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA). Journal of the American Heart Association, 5(10).
  • Moir, T. & O'Brien, J. & Hill, S. & Waldron, L. (2016). The influence of feeding a high calcium, algae supplement on gastric ulceration in adult horses. Journal of Applied Animal Nutrition, 4, E8.

The problem with "nutritionism" (a belief that the key to understanding whole food is to understand isolated nutrients)

Synthetic amino acid manufacturing: Environmental impact

  • Marinussen, M. & Kool, A. (2010). Environmental impacts of synthetic amino acid production. Gouda, Netherlands: Blonk Consultants, LLC.

The historical feeding and treatment of horses

  • Stewart, John. (1858). The stable book: Being a treatment on the management of horses. New York, NY: A.O. Moore.
  • Youatt, William. (1860). The history, treatment, and diseases of the horse: Embracing an account of his introduction and use in various countries ... with a treatise draught, and a copious index. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott.

The historical feeding and treatment of dogs

  • Leighton, Robert. (1907). The new book of the dog. London, UK: Cassell & Co.
  • Walsh, John Henry. (1887). The dog in health and disease. London, UK: Longmans, Green, and Co.

Custom diets for healthier dogs

  • Ward, Ernie. Chow hounds: Why our dogs are getting fatter — a vet's plan to save their lives. Deerfield Beach, FL. Health Communications.

The facts about rawhide chews

The Big Food industry: What has happened to real food?

  • Estabrook, Barry. (2012). Tomatoland: How modern industrial agriculture destroyed our most alluring fruit. Kansas City, MO: Andrews McMeel.
  • Warner, Melanie. (2013). Pandora’s lunchbox: How processed food took over the American meal. New York, NY: Simon & Schuster.

GMO research and legislation

  • Bøhn, Thomas & Cuhra, Marek & Traavik, Terje & Sanden, Monica & Fagan, John & Primicerio, Raul. (2014). Compositional differences in soybeans on the market: Glyphosate accumulates in Roundup-Ready GM soybeans. Food Chemistry, 153, 207-15.
  • Hallenbeck, Terri. (2014, April 27). How GMO labeling came to pass in Vermont. The Burlington Free Press. Retrieved from https://www.burlingtonfreepress.com/story/news/politics/2014/04/27/gmo-labeling-came-pass-vermont/8166519/
  • Keeler, Barbara & Lappe, Marc. (2001). Some food for FDA regulation. The Los Angeles Times. Retrieved from https://www.latimes.com/archives/la-xpm-2001-jan-07-op-9297-story.html [This article is largely a response to the Padgette, S.R. et al. article referenced below.]
  • Kraft, Nina. (2012, July 11). Rotter fetere av genmat. Norwegian University of Veterinary Science. Retrieved from https://forskning.no/norges-veterinaerhogskole-genmodifisert-mat-partner/rotter-fetere-av-genmat/693449 [This study reports that rats fed genetically engineered food ate more, got fatter and were less able to digest proteins due to alterations in the micro-structure of their intestines. An automated English translation of this Norwegian language article can be found here ].
  • Padgette, S.R. & Taylor, N.B. & Nida, D.L. & Bailey, M.R. & MacDonald, J. & Holden, L.R. & Fuchs, R.L. (1996). The composition of glyphosate-tolerant soybean seeds is equivalent to that of conventional soybeans. The Journal of Nutrition, 126(3), 702-16. [This is a corporate-commissioned, Monsanto-funded study; see above reference to Keeler’s and Lappe’s Los Angeles Times article for an independent interpretation of this paper, which includes criticism of the Monsanto group’s research methods, conclusions and omissions of important study data.]
  • Vendômois, Joël & Roullier, Francois & Cellier, Dominique & Séralini, Gilles-Eric. (2009). A comparison of the effects of three GM corn varieties on mammalian health. International Journal of Biological Sciences, 5(7), 706-26.

The effects of glyphosate (Roundup) on animals and humans

  • Bøhn, Thomas & Cuhra, Marek & Traavik, Terje & Sanden, Monica & Fagan, John & Primicerio, Raul. (2014). Compositional differences in soybeans on the market: Glyphosate accumulates in Roundup-Ready GM soybeans. Food Chemistry, 153, 207-15.
  • Cuhra, Marek. (2015). Review of GMO safety assessment studies: Glyphosate residues in Roundup-Ready crops is an ignored issue. Environmental Sciences Europe, 27(20).
  • Samsel, A. & Seneff S. (2013). Glyphosate, pathways to modern diseases II: Celiac sprue and gluten intolerance. Interdisciplinary Toxicology, 6(4), 159–84.
  • Samsel, A. & Seneff, S. (2013). Glyphosate’s suppression of cytochrome P450 enzymes and amino acid biosynthesis by the gut microbiome: Pathways to modern diseases. Entropy, 15(4), 1416-63.
  • Scientists warns of dire consequences with widespread use of glyphosate. (2010). The Organic and Non-GMO Report. Retrieved from https://non-gmoreport.com/articles/may10/consequenceso_widespread_glyphosate_use.php
  • Walters, C. (2011). GMOs, glyphosate and tomorrow: An interview with Don Huber, PhD. Acres U.S.A., 41(5).

Arsenic and heavy metal toxicity

  • Dougherty, C.P. & Henricks, Holtz S. & Reinert, J.C. & Panyacosit, L. & Axelrad, D.A. & Woodruff, T.J. (2000). Dietary exposures to food contaminants across the United States. Environmental Research, 84(2), 170-85.
  • Friedrich, M.J. (2013). Genetic damage linked to elevated arsenic levels in rice. Journal of the American Medical Association, 310(11), 1113.
  • Vogt, Rainbow & Bennett, Deborah & Cassady, Diana & Frost, Joshua & Ritz, Beate & Hertz-Picciotto, Irva. (2012). Cancer and non-cancer health effects from food contaminant exposures for children and adults in California: A risk assessment. Environmental Health, 11(1), 83.
  • Weiss, B. (2000). Vulnerability of children and the developing brain to neurotoxic hazards. Environmental Health Perspectives, 108(Suppl. 3), 375-81.

Hay quality

  • West, Christy M. (2008, May 1). Fiber in hay: What’s the magic number?. Retrieved from The Horse website: https://thehorse.com/122330/fiber-in-hay-whats-the-magic-number/
  • Zobiole, Luiz & Júnior, Rubem & Huber, D.M. & Constantin, Jamil & de Castro, César & Oliveira, Fábio & de Oliveira, Adilson. (2009). Glyphosate reduces shoot concentration of mineral nutrients in glyphosate-resistant soybeans. Plant Soil, 328(1-2), 57-69.

Feed contamination: Sources and case studies

Hydration and water quality


Food as Medicine

Ayurvedic medicine

  • Caldecott, Todd. (2006). Ayurveda: The divine science of life. St. Louis, MO: Elsevier Health Sciences.
  • Frawley, David. (1986). The yoga of herbs: An Ayurvedic guide to herbal medicine. Twin Lakes, WI. Lotus Press.
  • Frawley, David. (2001). Ayurvedic healing: A comprehensive guide. Twin Lakes, WI. Lotus Press.
  • Shea, Bridgette. (2018). Handbook of Chinese medicine and Ayurveda: An integrated practice of ancient healing traditions. Rochester, VT. Healing Arts Press.

The rise of Western medicine

Medications and the nutrients they deplete

Medicinal mushrooms

  • Berglin, S. (2017) Beta-glucans: The medicinal actives of mushrooms. Retrieved from https://www.fxmedicine.com.au/blog-post/beta-glucans-medicinal-actives-mushrooms
  • El Khoury, Dalia & Cuda, C. & Luhovyy, B.L. & Anderson, Gerald. (2012). Beta-glucan: Health benefits in obesity and metabolic syndrome. Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism, vol. 2012.
  • Guggenheim, A. G. & Wright, K. M., & Zwickey, H. L. (2014). Immune Modulation From Five Major Mushrooms: Application to Integrative Oncology. Integrative Medicine. 13(1), 32–44.
  • Hetland, Geir & Ohno, Naohito & Aaberge, Ingeborg & Løvik, Martinus. (2000). Protective effect of β-glucan against systemic Streptococcus pneumoniae infection in mice. FEMS Immunology and Medical Microbiology, 27(2), 111-6.
  • Vetvicka, Vaclav & Vetvickova, Jana. (2009). Effects of yeast-derived β-glucans on blood cholesterol and macrophage functionality. Journal of Immunotoxicology, 6(1), 30-5.
  • Wasser, S. (2014). Medicinal mushroom science: Current perspectives, advances, evidences, and challenges. Biomedical Journal, 37(6): 345-56.
  • Wong J. et al. (2013). Gastroprotective Effects of Lion’s Mane Mushroom Hericium erinaceus (Bull.:Fr.) Pers. (Aphyllophoromycetideae) Extract against Ethanol-Induced Ulcer in Rats. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, Oct. 2013.


Stress and the G.I Tract

The gut microbiota

  • Chung, W. & Meijerink, M. & Zeuner, B. & Holck, J. & Louis, P. & Meyer, A. & Wells, J. & Flint, H. & Duncan, S. (2017). Prebiotic potential of pectin and pectic oligosaccharides to promote anti-inflammatory commensal bacteria in the human colon, FEMS Microbiology Ecology, 93 (11).
  • Samsel, A. & Seneff S. (2013). Glyphosate, pathways to modern diseases II: Celiac sprue and gluten intolerance. Interdisciplinary Toxicology, 6(4), 159–84.
  • Samsel, A. & and Seneff, S. (2013). Glyphosate’s suppression of cytochrome P450 enzymes and amino acid biosynthesis by the gut microbiome: Pathways to modern diseases. Entropy, 15(4), 1416-63.
  • Suez, Jotham & Korem, Tal & Zeevi, David & Zilberman-Schapira, Gili & A. Thaiss, Christoph & Maza, Ori & Israeli, David & … Elinav, Eran. (2014). Artificial sweeteners induce glucose intolerance by altering the gut microbiota. Nature, 514, 181-86.

Stress and the gut/brain connection

  • Chetty, Sundari & Friedman, Aaron & Taravosh-Lahn, Kereshmeh & Kirby, Elizabeth D. & Mirescu, Christian & Guo, Fuzheng & Krupik, Danna &… Kaufer, Daniela. (2014). Stress and glucocorticoids promote oligodendrogenesis in the adult hippocampus. Molecular Psychiatry, 19(12), 1275-83.

Mitochondria, energy and stress


Other Canine Health Topics

Lyme disease: Prevention and nutritional support

  • Doucleff, Michaeleen & Greenhalgh, Jane. (2017, March 6). Forbidding forecast for Lyme disease in the northeast. Retrieved from https://www.npr.org/sections/goatsandsoda/2017/03/06/518219485/forbidding-forecast-for-lyme-disease-in-the-northeast
  • Levi, T.A.M & Kilpatrick & Mangel, M. & Wilmers, C.C. (2012). Deer, predators, and the emergence of Lyme disease. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 109(27), 10942-7.


Common Feed and Supplement Ingredients NOT used by BioStar

Soy

  • Perry, Edward & Ciliberto, Federico & Hennessy, David & Moschini, GianCarlo. (2016). Genetically engineered crops and pesticide use in U.S. maize and soybeans. Science Advances, 2(8).

Wheat, wheat bran & gluten

  • Davis, William. (2011). Wheat belly: Lose the wheat, lose the weight, and find your path back to health. Emmaus, PA: Rodale Press.
  • Djokovic, Novak. (2014). Serve to win. London, UK: Transworld Publishers LTD.
  • Saunders, R.M. & Walker, H.G. (1969). The sugars of wheat bran. Cereal Chemistry, 46, 85-92.
  • van der Kolk, J.H. & van Putten, L.A. & Mulder, C.J. & Grinwis, G.C.M. & Reijm, M. & Butler C.M. & von Blomberg, B.M.E. (2012). Gluten-dependent antibodies in horses with inflammatory small bowel disease (ISBD). Veterinary Quarterly, 32(1), 3-11.

Rice bran

  • Friedrich, M.J. (2013). Genetic damage linked to elevated arsenic levels in rice. Journal of the American Medical Association, 310(11), 1113.

Preservatives

  • BHA - National Toxicology Program. (2016). Report on carcinogens, fourteenth edition. Research Triangle Park, N.C. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service. Retrieved from https://ntp.niehs.nih.gov/go/roc14
  • BHT - Schrader, T.J. & Cooke, G.M. (2000). Examination of selected food additives and organochlorine food contaminants for androgenic activity in vitro. Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology, 53(2), 278-88.
  • Ethoxyquin - Błaszczyk, Alina & Augustyniak, Aleksandra & Skolimowski, Janusz. (2013). Ethoxyquin: An antioxidant used in animal feed. International Journal of Food Science, 2013, 1-12.

Artificial sweeteners

  • Suez, Jotham & Korem, Tal & Zeevi, David & Zilberman-Schapira, Gili & A. Thaiss, Christoph & Maza, Ori & Israeli, David & … Elinav, Eran. (2014). Artificial sweeteners induce glucose intolerance by altering the gut microbiota. Nature, 514, 181-86.

“Natural” and artificial flavorings

  • MacVean, Mary. (2014, August 15). Food buyers lean toward 'natural,' a claim that's hard to define. The Los Angeles Times. Retrieved from www.latimes.com/health/la-he-natural-20140816-story.html.
  • Rangan, Urvashi & McMillan, Suzanne & Friedrich, Bruce & Lovera, Patty & Olson, Erik & Gilman, Steve & Maltby, Ed & Hubbard, Kristina & Reitman-White, Natalie & Culpepper, Jessica. “Citizen petition…to request the Secretary of Agriculture to issue an interpretive rule prohibiting the ‘natural’ label on meat and poultry products.” Consumer Reports National Research Center. 26 Jun 2014.
  • Schatzker, M. (2016). The Dorito effect: The surprising new truth about food and flavor. New York, NY: Simon & Schuster.


Common Soap & Shampoo Ingredients NOT used by BioStar

Methylisothiazolinone (MIT)

  • Castanedo-Tardana, M. and K. Zug. (2013). Methylisothiazolinone. Dermatitis, 24(1), 2-6.

Cocamide

Hexyl cinnamal

  • Schnuch, Axel & Uter, Wolfgang & Geier, Johannes & Lessmann, Holger & J Frosch, Peter. (2007). Sensitization to 26 fragrances to be labelled according to current European regulation: Results of the IVDK and review of the literature. Contact Dermatitis, 57(1), 1-10.

Polysorbate 20

  • 1,4-Dioxane. (2019). Campaign for Safe Cosmetics. Retrieved from http://www.safecosmetics.org/get-the-facts/chemicals-of-concern/14-dioxane/ [1,4-dioxane is a known carcinogen and contaminant of the common shampoo ingredient polysorbate 20. Many references are included with this article.]

Triclosan and triclocarban

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